Bad Credit 101: The Small Mistakes That Are Killing Your Score
You just applied for a credit card, or maybe it was a new apartment or a loan, and you got denied. DENIED. Seriously? You were totally under the impression that your credit was solid—and it just sucker punched you in the face.
Did you know that lenders and landlords often consider an applicant's credit score before approval? Well, being rejected due to bad credit is never fun—especially if you didn't know it was less than stellar.
The good news is that the credit-scoring process is fairly transparent, and by correcting some bad habits, your score can improve.
Here's what you're probably doing wrong, and how you can fix it:
1. Late Payments
Paying bills late is by far the biggest drag on your credit. Payment history determines 35 percent of your FICO score, and for good reason. If someone has failed to pay his bills on time in the past, he will probably continue to do so.
You can make sure your bills are always paid on time by setting up payment alerts. If you know exactly when your bills are due, you'll at least have the opportunity to pay them on time.
2. Using Too Much Credit
Credit utilization ratio is another major factor used to determine your FICO score and, therefore, your overall credit health. This number comes from two semi-independent figures:
1. Total amount of credit in use divided by total amount of credit available
2. Credit in use on individual cards divided by amount of credit available on each card
When lenders see you're using a high percentage of your available credit, they assume you may have difficulty paying off more credit should you have access to it. This is why credit utilization ratio affects your overall credit and why maintaining a lower ratio is always better.
To prevent your credit utilization ratio from getting out of hand, consider setting up account alerts through your issuer. The reminder will let you know when the proportions are getting lopsided so you can adjust accordingly. Also, check your account manually once a week or so. Five minutes of time could save you years of headache trying to repair a bad credit score.
3. Lost Collection Account
If you pay your bills on time while keeping your card balances low and your credit is still bad, it's time to pull your credit report. You may have forgotten about an old account in collection, but the credit bureaus haven't. Whether it's from a medical bill, an old credit line or perhaps from something you co-signed on years ago, unpaid debt that has gone to collections can be a major drag on your credit score, and fixing or managing this information is extremely important.
For starters, you'll need to know specifics about outstanding debt before you can address it. All of the information used to determine your credit score can be accessed for free once a year on your credit reports at AnnualCreditReport.com. Here you'll find credit card information, loans and, of course, any accounts in collection.
If you find any erroneous information on your report, you can:
1. File a dispute directly with the credit bureau(s) reporting the error.
2. File a dispute with whoever is holding the debt (bank, credit card company, collection agency, etc.).
3. Offer supplementary supporting information to the Consumer Finance Protection Bureau.
It's usually best to do all three to ensure all parties are not only aware of the error, but also have enough information to judge it accurately.
If the collections data is accurate, it'll usually remain your credit report for seven years from the date of issue. During this period it's important to make sure all credit payments are made on time, that you maintain a low overall credit utilization ratio and that you restrict opening new accounts that result in a hard credit pull.
Having bad credit will likely present certain temporary borrowing limits, but it can be overcome. If you're smart about promoting habits that result in credit improvement, this period can be shortened dramatically, making bad credit a thing of the past.
This article originally appeared on NerdWallet. Kevin Cash is a staff writer covering credit cards and consumer credit for NerdWallet.